DESCRIPTION: This lesson is aimed to explain about the use of simple present tense especially subject-verb statement. It also shows how to form negative and interrogative sentences.

Key Points

We will learn about how to use simple present tense by describing their daily activities and telling about general truth in this lesson. It is important to know how to use the simple present tense. Telling about someone’s daily activities or routines is in the simple present tense. In a conversation, people can talk and share about his/her daily activities. You need to know how to use the correct sentences, so that the communication runs well and to avoid misunderstanding.

Read the following dialogue and pay attention to the words in bold.
Teacher : What do you usually do in the morning?
Yuyun : I usually make my bed when I get up at 4 o’clock in the morning. Then, I cook something for my breakfast. After cooking, I have a shower and dress up to go to school.
Teacher : What do you have for breakfast?
Yuyun : I have rice and fried egg. I sometimes have fish.
Teacher : Do you like vegetables?
Yuyun : Yes, I do.
Teacher : (Asks Yamin) What does she like?
Yamin : She likes vegetables.

The dialogue above is about daily routines. It means that the questions and the answers are in the simple present tense. How do we use it and how to make sentences in this tense? Read the explanation below.

Simple Present Tense (Subject and Verb Agreement)
Simple present tense is used to express routine actions the example is in the above dialogue. The verb in simple present tense is verb 1 (basic form of verb). To form negative or interrogative statements, you need to add do, or does to verbs. Since the verbs have auxiliary verbs (do/does), the verb forms become bare.

Let’s see how to form negative and interrogative forms.
(+) She likes vegetables. 👉Subject + Verb 1 + Object/Complement.
(-) She does not like vegetables. 👉 Subject+ do/does + not + Verb 1 + Object/Complement.
(?) Does she like vegetables? 👉 Do/does + Subject + Verb 1 + Object/Complement?

• As you can see, the verb in the examples ends in –s because the subject is She (a pronoun for the third singular persons). Other third singular pronouns are he and it.
• To change the statement (+) into negative form (-), the verb needs does and not after the subject. To form an interrogative sentence (?), the auxiliary does comes before the subject.
• Verb forms of third singular person subjects always end in –s or –es that the choice depends on the end of the basic form of the verbs.

You just learned about personal pronouns for the third singular persons. Other pronouns that we can use in simple present sentences are I, you, we, they. To make negative or interrogative statements, an auxiliary verb do is needed.

To make it clear, have a look at the following table.

Pronouns Examples & Forms

(I, you, we, they) get up at 4 a.m.(I/You/We/They) do not get up at 4 a.m.Do (I/you/we/they) get up at 4 a.m.?
(He/She/It) likes hunting.(He/She/It) does not like hunting.Does (he/she/it) like hunting?
👉 do not = don’t
👉 does not = doesn’t
Pronouns Examples & Forms
Besides daily routines or habitual actions, we can use simple present tense to tell about general truth.

~ Fish live in the water.
~ Anoa is from Sulawesi.
~ Lore Lindu National Park is located in Central Sulawesi Province.
~ Watu Mohai National Park is one of the national parks in Indonesia.
~ My friend does not eat meat because she is a vegetarian.

In this lesson, we can conclude that simple present tense is a tense that is used to express the following points:
– habitual actions or routines,
– general truth

We will talk more about simple present tense using copula or be am, is, are in the next lesson.